Speleological Subject Classifications
For Cave/Karst Data Fields

This version 14-Jun-1997

This scheme is for the purpose of classifying cave and karst data fields. It has been prepared by the Informatics Commission (UISIC) of the International Union of Speleology (UIS) and is adapted from the bibliographic classification scheme used by UIS Speleo Abstracts / Bulletin Bibliographique Spéléologique (BBS) of the UIS Bibliography Commission. See also main Introduction. For an example of its use, see the Fields List page of the UISIC proposal for cave and karst data exchange.

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Main Classifications
0 : General
1 : Geospeleology and Karstology
2 : Regional Speleology and Karstology
3 : Biospeleology
4 : Anthropospeleology
5 : Paleontospeleology
6 : Applied Speleology
7 : Technical Speleology
8 : Documentary Speleology
9 : Other

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0 : GENERAL
Matters which could apply to any aspect of speleology.
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1 : GEOSPELEOLOGY AND KARSTOLOGY
Without geographical connection or of general interest.
11 : KARSTOLOGY
111 : KARST MORPHOLOGY AND MORPHOGENESIS
Exokarst of carbonate rocks (limestones, dolomites, chalk, marbles); Geochemistry; Soil-CO2; Corrosion; Karst types (holokarst, merokarst, fluviokarst, glaciokarst, volcanokarst; Tropical karst).
112 : HYDROLOGY
Water chemistry and physics; Springs and sinks; Karstic groundwater; Water tracings.
113 : GEOLOGY AND PEDOLOGY
Petrography; Tectonics; Tufa; Bauxite; Glaciations.
114 : CLIMATOLOGY AND BIOLOGY OF KARST REGIONS
115 : FOSSIL KARST
Paleokarst; Karstic fillings; Paleogeography.
116 : HYDROTHERMAL KARST
12 : GEOSPELEOLOGY
121 : MORPHOLOGY AND SPELEOGENESIS IN CARBONATE ROCKS
Caves, potholes; Corrosion and erosion; Small and large hollow forms; Sumps.
122 : PARAKARST, PSEUDOKARST, AND HYPOKARST
[See 1.3-1.8.]
123 : SUBTERRANEAN DEPOSITS AND FILLINGS
Chemistry, mineralogy and morphology; Speleothems, clay and alluvial sediments; Collapses. [Guano see 3.1.5. Ice see 1.2.4.]
124 : SUBTERRANEAN CLIMATOLOGY
Temperature, Hygrometry, Winds, Air-CO2; Dripping and condensation waters, Ice.
125 : GEOPHYSICS
Radioactivity; Seismology; Geothermalism; Volcanism.
126 : CHRONOLOGY OF SUBTERRANEAN FILLINGS
Stratigraphy; Datings; Palynology.
13 : SPECIAL KARSTS
Conglomerates; Magnesite; Travertine; Calcarenite; Corals, Chalk.
14 : PARAKARST IN EVAPORITES
Gypsum, halides.
15 : PARAKARST IN SILICEOUS ROCKS
Quartzite; Sandstones; Flysch; Loess; Marls; Piping in alluvial material.
16 : PSEUDOKARST
Granites, Gneiss; Talus-caves.
17 : ICE HYPOKARST, PERMAFROSTKARST AND THERMOKARST
18 : HYPOKARST AND PSEUDOKARST IN VOLCANIC ROCKS
Lavas, basalt.
19 : GEOSPELEOLOGY AND KARSTOLOGY - OTHER

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2 : REGIONAL SPELEOLOGY AND KARSTOLOGY
F: Use locational categories 8.1. B: Descriptions, expedition reports, locations, warnings, exploration history, and exploration status of specific sites. Regional lists, maps, databases, inventories, etc. [See History of Speleology 4.2, Regional Biospeleology 3.3, Anthropology 4.1, and Paleontology 5.1]
20 : REGIONAL SPELEOLOGY - GENERAL AND WORLD
[Including items covering more than one of the groups below. See International Congresses & UIS 7.7]
21 : EUROPE
211 : WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE
212 : EASTERN EUROPE / EURASIA
22 : AMERICA
221 : NORTHERN AMERICA
222 : CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN AMERICA
23 : ASIA
24 : AFRICA
25 : AUSTRALASIA, OCEANIA
26 : COSMOS
29 : OTHER

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3 : BIOSPELEOLOGY
30 : GENERAL BIOSPELEOLOGY
31 : BIOSPELEOLOGY - SYSTEMATICS
311 : CRUSTACEA
312 : HEXAPODA
313 : ARACHNIDA, MYRIAPODA, ONYCHOPHORA
314 : MOLLUSCA, VERMES, OTHER INVERTEBRATA
315 : VERTEBRATA
316 : MICROBIOLOGY - SOIL, AIR, WATER
317 : HYPOGEAN FLORA, FUNGI, ALGAE
32 : GENERAL BIOLOGY
33 : REGIONAL BIOSPELEOLOGY
[See Biogeography 6.4]
330 : REGIONAL BIOSPELEOLOGY - GENERAL AND WORLD
331 : BIOSPELEOLOGY - EUROPE
332 : BIOSPELEOLOGY - AMERICA
333 : BIOSPELEOLOGY - ASIA
334 : BIOSPELEOLOGY - AFRICA
335 : BIOSPELEOLOGY - AUSTRALASIA, OCEANIA
39 : BIOSPELEOLOGY - OTHER

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4 : ANTHROPOSPELEOLOGY
[See Current Sociology 7.5.]
40 : ANTHROPOSPELEOLOGY - GENERAL
41 : ARCHAEOLOGY AND PREHISTORICAL AND HISTORICAL CULTURES
410 : ARCHEOLOGY - GENERAL AND WORLD
Without regional connection.
411 : ARCHEOLOGY - EUROPE
412 : ARCHEOLOGY - AMERICA
413 : ARCHEOLOGY - ASIA
414 : ARCHEOLOGY - AFRICA
415 : ARCHEOLOGY - AUSTRALASIA, OCEANIA
42 : HISTORY OF SPELEOLOGY
43 : PERSONALIA
44 : ARCHEOLOGY - VARIA
45 : ORGANISATIONS
49 : ARCHEOLOGY - OTHER

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5 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY
50 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - GENERAL
51 : FOSSIL AND SUBFOSSIL FAUNA AND FLORA (QUATERNARY)
510 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - GENERAL AND WORLD
Without regional connection.
511 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - EUROPE
512 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - AMERICA
513 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - ASIA
514 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - AFRICA
515 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - AUSTRALASIA, OCEANIA
52 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - VARIA
59 : PALEONTOSPELEOLOGY - OTHER

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6 : APPLIED SPELEOLOGY
Without geographical connection, or of general interest. [Cave and karst management fields could belong in any or several of the sub-categories as appropriate.]
60 : APPLIED SPELEOLOGY - GENERAL
61 : ENVIRONMENT, HYGIENE
Environmental integrity. Catchment management. Drinking waters. Pollution. Water purification.
62 : MINES, ENGINEERING
Use of artificial and natural cavities, poljes and dolines; Hydraulic power; Irrigation; Erosion control; Flood mitigation; Collapse control; Saltpetre production. Urban, drain and mine speleology.
63 : LAW, PROTECTION
Legislation. Preservation. Vandalism. Access restrictions. Ownership. Liability. Land-use zoning. [See Ethics 7.6]
64 : RECREATION, TOURISM, GEOSYSTEM
Experiential use of caves. Show caves and their management. Adventure caves. Sport caving. Parks. Biogeography, Demography, Planning, Agriculture. [See Mine & drain speleology 6.2]
65 : HEALTH
Subterranean therapy. Role of karst in public health.
66 : RESEARCH MANAGEMENT
Subterranean laboratories. Museums. Research centres. Organisational arrangements.
67 : APPLIED SPELEOLOGY - VARIA
Collectables (Philately, Badges, Postcards, Wine labels, etc)
68 : PRODUCTION
Silviculture. Cheesemaking. Mushroom growing. Wine making. [See Agriculture 6.4]
69 : APPLIED SPELEOLOGY - OTHER

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7 : TECHNICAL SPELEOLOGY
70 : TECHNICAL SPELEOLOGY - GENERAL
71 : EXPLORATION
Techniques and materials. Personal equipment. Explosives. Logistics.
72 : DIVING
Techniques and material. [See Accidents 7.4]
73 : PROSPECTING
Geophysical, chemical, and mathematical methods. Photogrammetry. Remote sensing. [See Water tracing 1.1.2]
74 : ACCIDENTS AND RESCUE
Techniques and material including diving accidents. Accident reports and analysis. Rescue exercises. [See Warnings 2]
75 : MEDICINE
Human physiology and psychology. Sociology. Food, nutrition.
76 : EDUCATION
Caving schools. Training. Ethics. Teaching.
77 : ACTIVITIES
International Congresses. UIS. [See Regional societies 2]
79 : TECHNICAL SPELEOLOGY - OTHER

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8 : DOCUMENTARY SPELEOLOGY
Techniques and materials. General catalogues and repositories. [Regional descriptions, lists, databases, maps, films, etc should be primarily classified under 2]
80 : DOCUMENTATION - GENERAL
81 : TOPOGRAPHY
B: Techniques and material. F: Spatial measurement and representation of subterranean, topographical and geomorphological environments.
810 : TOPOGRAPHY - GENERAL
[F: All locational fields should be classified here]
811 : SURVEYING
812 : CARTOGRAPHY
Mapping. Computer programmes for survey data reduction and mapping. [See Maps and map lists 2]
813 : GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Computer-produced representation and analysis of combined spatial and descriptive data.
814 : COMPUTER REPRESENTATIONS. VIRTUAL REALITY.
Subterranean, topographic and geomorphological images and representations which exist solely in a computer system.
815 : SOLID MODELS
816 : DIMENSIONS
Dimensioning methods. [See Lists of longest and deepest, etc 2]
82 : TOPONYMY, TERMINOLOGY, TAXONOMY
Naming practices. Glossaries. Multi-lingual terminology lists. Classification systems. [See Identification systems 8.7]
83 : BIBLIOGRAPHY
Techniques and materials. [See General bibliographies 8.3.1. Regional, scientific or technical bibliographies should be classified under their region, 2, or topic.]
830 : BIBLIOGRAPHY - GENERAL
831 : BIBLIOGRAPHIES
General bibliographies, reference lists and abstracts, e.g. BBS. Indexes to publications. [See Brief overviews 8.3.4]
832 : CATALOGUES
Lists of non-textual items which cannot be classified under a more specific topic.
833 : LIBRARIES
834 : SPELEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS
Lists of serials. Overviews.
839 : BIBLIOGRAPHY - OTHER
84 : PHOTOGRAPHY AND CINEMATOGRAPHY. AUDIO- VISUALS.
Techniques and materials. [Photographic and audio-visual works should be primarily classified under their respective region, 2, or topic.]
840 : PHOTO AND CINE - GENERAL
841 : PHOTOGRAPHY
842 : FILM AND AUDIO-VISUAL DEVICES
85 : GENERAL WORKS
Speleological books. Popular works. Magazine articles.
86 : INVENTORIES. DATABASES. REPOSITORIES
Techniques and materials. [Regional scientific or technical lists, databases or repositories should be primarily classified under their region, 2, or topic.]
860 : DATABASES - GENERAL
861 : DATA COLLECTING
Techniques for collecting and recording field information.
862 : DATA STORAGE
Filing systems. Data attributes. Data structures. Cross-referencing. Storage media.
863 : DATA ANALYSIS. REPORTING
Techniques for analysis, reporting, publishing.
864 : DATA TRANSFER
Techniques and formats.
865 : DATA SECURITY
Techniques for protecting data. Rules for release of data.
866 : DATA QUALITY
Accuracy. Lineage. Age. Completeness. Logical consistency. [F: Fields specifying the author or producer of work should be classified here.]
87 : IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS
Techniques for systematic identification of individual caves, karst features, maps, etc. [See Classification (as opposed to Identification) 8.2]
89 : DOCUMENTATION - OTHER

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9 : OTHER
Classifications not covered elsewhere.
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